INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN ELEMENTS ON STEEL. '345 TABLE XVII-A. Physical Properties of Silicon Steels.* A B C D E P G H .14 .18 .19 .20 .20 .21 .21 .77 1.57 2.14 2.67 8.40 4.30 5.08 .14 .21 .26 .20 .36 J3 O Hi 04 04 73920 76160 84000 88480 05200 106400 109700 107520 »-2 QjiH w H 66.7 78.5 74.7 78.5 75.8' 78.7 91.8 80.05 29.50 81.10 18.48 17.60 11.10 0.004 0.30 54.54 54.54 50.58 28.02 24.36 14.22 0.20 0.70 Ill m*—< tt i 66000 64060. 73920 76160 71680 87860 85120 66000 Bars A, B, C and D showed a silky fracture after breaking, but with higher silicon the crystallization was very coarse. They also showed no great hardening or brittleness after being quenched in water from a yellow heat, while even the higher alloys, although made quite stiff by the chilling, were not rendered very hard, and preserved a good degree of ductility. With the exception of A, the ingots forged well even up to '5.5 .per cent, of silicon, but all attempts at welding were unsatisfactory. These results are of value in showing that silicon cannot be classed among the highly injurious elements, for in similar proportion phosphorus and sulphur would be out of the question, manganese would give a worthless metal, and carbon would change the bar to pig-iron. It will be only reasonable to suppose that small quantities cannot exert a very deleterious influence. The only bar in the table with a moderate content of silicon is A with .21 per cent., and this ingot did not forge well and did not weld, but the manganese was only .14 per cent., while the sulphur was .08 per cent., and the phosphorus .05 per cent. It would hardly be expected that such metal would forge well, and it is not singular that it gave trouble, while other experimenters have forged and welded steel with similar contents of silicon when the associated 'elements were in proper proportion. In the whole series the work done upon the ingot in reducing it * Condensed from Hadfleld. Journal L and S. I., Vol. II, 1889, p. 222.